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References Abstract This review of literature and current information related to distance learning deals with several primary research issues.
Issues in Distance Learning Distance education technologies are expanding at an extremely rapid rate. Too often, instructional designers and curriculum developers have become enamored of the latest technologies without dealing with the underlying issues of learner characteristics and needs, the influence of media upon the instructional process, equity of access to interactive delivery systems, and the new roles of teacher, site facilitator, and student in the distance learning process.
This review of literature and current information related to distance learning is an expansion and update of Schlosser and Anderson's literature review for the Iowa model of distance education. Additional reports were obtained through the Pacific Mountain Network, the ERIC database, electronic communications via Internet with administrators of open universities and open learning agencies throughout the world, collections of manuscripts and documents in the Department of Instructional Technology and Special Education at the University of Colorado at Denver, and personal communications with distance education developers at professional conferences as well as school districts in the Greater Denver area.
It is intended as a companion piece to Sherry and Morse's Needs Assessment for Distance Education, as well as background information for other projects in telecommunications and distance learning. The issues addressed in this report reflect some of the primary research issues covered by Schlosser and Andersonthose stressed in the Far View I-IV videotape series, descriptions and evaluations of current distance education delivery systems by key administrators of open universities and open learning agencies, and issues deemed important by participants in the Needs Assessment for Distance Learning.
We will start with some definitions, history, theories, and systems of distance education. Next, we will deal with methods and strategies for designing and delivering instruction Distance learning papers research a distance.
We will then describe the characteristics of distance learners, their modes of learning, factors which influence success, and learner support systems.
We will deal with operational issues, including technology adoption and defining the roles of key personnel. Finally, we will address management and policy decisions. What is distance education? Definitions The terms "distance education" or "distance learning" have been applied interchangeably by many different researchers to a great variety of programs, providers, audiences, and media.
History and media We find a rich history as each form of instructional media evolved, from print, to instructional television, to current interactive technologies. The earliest form of distance learning took place through correspondence courses in Europe.
This was the accepted norm until the middle of this century, when instructional radio and television became popular. According to Margaret Cambrein the late 's and early 's, television production technology was largely confined to studios and live broadcasts, in which master teachers conducted widely-broadcast classes.
Unfortunately, teachers who were expert in the subject matter were not necessarily the best and most captivating television talent, nor was the dull "talking head" medium the best production method for holding the interest of the audience.
In the early 's, the emphasis turned from bringing master teachers into the classroom to taking children out of the classroom into the outside world.
This had the negative effect of relegating television to the position of enrichment, which was not perceived as really related to school work.
This trend was reversed later in the 's, as professionally designed and produced television series introduced students to new subject matter that was not being currently taught, yet was considered to be an important complement to the classroom curriculum.
Then, in the 's, the pendulum swung back to the basics. The most recent trend has been one of multiculturalism, humanities, and world affairs. The major drawback of radio and broadcast television for instruction was the lack of a 2-way communications channel between teacher and student. As increasingly sophisticated interactive communications technologies became available, however, they were adopted by distance educators.
Currently, the most popular media are computer-based communication including electronic mail E-mailbulletin board systems BBSsand Internet; telephone-based audioconferencing; and videoconferencing with 1- or 2-way video and 2-way audio via broadcast, cable, telephone, fiber optics, satellite, microwave, closed-circuit or low power television.
Mosaic, a graphical interface to the World Wide Web, has become popular in parts of Canada, Europe, and Australia over the past year. Today, political and public interest in distance education is especially high in areas where the student population is widely distributed.
Each region has developed its own form of distance education in accordance with local resources, target audience, and philosophy of the organizations which provide the instruction. Many institutions, both public and private, offer university courses for self-motivated individuals through independent study programs.
The Office of Technology Assessment finds that, " OTA finds that, just as there is no one best use of technology, there is no one best way of teaching with technology.
Flexibility should be encouraged, allowing teachers to develop their personal teaching approach utilizing the variety of options offered by technology" US.
Theories and philosophies of distance education The theoretical basis on which instructional models is based affects not only the way in which information is communicated to the student, but also the way in which the student makes sense and constructs new knowledge from the information which is presented.
Currently, there are two opposing views which impact instructional design: Until recently, the dominant view has been the traditional, information processing approach, based on the concept of a computer performing formal operations on symbols Seamans, The key concept is that the teacher can transmit a fixed body of information to students via an external representation.
She represents an abstract idea as a concrete image and then presents the image to the learner via a medium. The learner, in turn, perceives, decodes, and stores it. Horton modifies this approach by adding two additional factors:Occasional Papers in Open and Distance Learning, Number Donnan, Peter, Ed.
Each of the four papers in this collection is concerned with open learning in one form or another. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a research on the staffing issues in distance learning (based on the case of Department of Management and Business Development at University of Ruse) and to recommend guidelines for future work.
Describe an issue that impacts distance-education learning. Describe an issue that impacts distance-education learning. The selected issue can be .
|Air Force Research Institute Papers||Specifically the researchers will address the following questions:|
|Distance Learning Research Proposal | pfmlures.com||November 30, UsefulResearchPapers Research Papers 0 The long-distance relationship is a partnership of people whose physical home are not at the same place or close to each other. The long distance relationship couples are the couples who build their relationships across spatial distances.|
|ICDLE 2018||Distance Learning The terms "distance learning," "distance education," and "distributed learning" are often used interchangeably, though some authors make sharp distinctions between their meanings.|
|ERI Economic Research Institute | Compensation Data||The Evaluation Strategy of the programs includes a combination of assignments, on demand examinations, submissions, project report. Each subject usually comprises of an Assignment 30 marks and Computer-Based Examination 70 marks.|
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Research Journal of Machine Learning Research 10 () Submitted 12/07; Revised 9/08; Published 2/09 Distance Metric Learning for Large Margin Nearest Neighbor Classiﬁcation Kilian Q. Weinberger [email protected] Yahoo!
Research Mission College Blvd problem of distance metric learning as a problem in convex optimization.
JOFDL publishes articles from around the world relating to primary research investigations, literature reviews, the application of open education innovations, and experiences of blended learning as well as teaching at a distance in any sector of education or training.