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World Association of Psychoanalysis Psychology portal Archetypal psychology was initiated as a distinct movement in the early s by James Hillmana psychologist who trained in analytical psychology and became the first Director of the Jung Institute in Zurich.
Hillman reports that archetypal psychology emerged partly from the Jungian tradition whilst drawing also from other traditions and authorities such as Henry Corbin, Vico and Plotinus. Archetypal psychology relativizes and deliteralizes the notion of ego and focuses on what it calls the psyche, or soul, and the deepest patterns of psychic functioning, "the fundamental fantasies that animate all life" Moore, in Hillman, Archetypal psychology likens itself to a polytheistic mythology in that it attempts to recognize the myriad fantasies and myths — gods, goddesses, demigods, mortals and animals — that shape and are shaped by our psychological lives.
In this framework the ego is but one psychological fantasy within an assemblage of fantasies. Archetypal psychology is, along with the classical and developmental schools, one of the three schools of post-Jungian psychology outlined by Andrew Samuels see Samuels, Influences The main influence on the development of archetypal psychology is Carl Jung 's analytical psychology.
It is strongly influenced by Classical GreekRenaissanceand Romantic ideas and thought.
Influential artists, poets, philosophers and psychologists include: Though all different in their theories and psychologies, they appear to be unified by their common concern for the psyche — the soul.
Jung Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychologist who was the first father of archetypal psychology. Jungian archetypes are thought patterns that find worldwide parallels in individuals or entire cultures. Archai appear in dreams, religions, the arts, and social customs in all people and they manifest impulsively in mental disorders.
What differentiates Jungian psychology from archetypal psychology is that Jung believed archetypes are cultural, anthropological, and transcend the empirical world of time and place, and are not phenomenal.
On the contrary, Archetypal psychology views archetypes to always be phenomenal. Corbin created the idea of the existence of the mundus imaginalis which is a distinct field of imaginable realities and offers an ontological mode of location of archetypes of the psyche.
The mundus imaginalis provided an evaluative and cosmic grounding for archetypes. The second contribution Corbin made to the field was the idea that archetypes are accessible to imagination and first present themselves as images, so the procedure of archetypal psychology must be rhetorical and poetic, without logical reasoning, and the goal in therapy should be to restore the patient's imaginable realities.
Therefore, the goal of therapy is the middle ground of psychic realities, a development of a sense of soul. Also, according to Corbin, the method of therapy is the cultivation of imagination.
Casey is attributed with distinguishing archetypal psychology from other theories by explaining an image as a way of seeing rather than something seen. According to Casey an image is only perceived by imagining because an image is not what one sees but the way one sees.
He also states that imagination is an activity of soul and not just a human faculty.
An image appears to be more profound, more powerful, and more beautiful than the comprehension of it. This explains the drive behind the arts which provide disciplines that can actualize the complexity of the image. By calling upon Jung to begin with, I am partly acknowledging the fundamental debt that archetypal psychology owes him.
He is the immediate ancestor in a long line that stretches back through Freud, DiltheyColeridgeSchellingVicoFicinoPlotinusand Plato to Heraclitus — and with even more branches yet to be traced p. Polytheistic psychology Thomas Moore says of James Hillman 's teaching that he "portrays the psyche as inherently multiple".
According to Hillman, "polytheistic psychology can give sacred differentiation to our psychic turmoil. The Greeks knew this so well, and so they had no depth psychology and psychopathology such as we have. And we have no myths — instead, depth psychology and psychopathology. Psyche psychology and Soul Hillman says he has been critical of the 20th century's psychologies e.
His main criticisms include that they are reductive, materialistic, and literal; they are psychologies without psyche, without soul.
Accordingly, Hillman's oeuvre has been an attempt to restore psyche to its proper place in psychology. Hillman sees the soul at work in imagination, fantasy, myth and metaphor.
He also sees soul revealed in psychopathologyin the symptoms of psychological disorders. Psyche-pathos-logos is the "speech of the suffering soul" or the soul's suffering of meaning. A great portion of Hillman's thought attempts to attend to the speech of the soul as it is revealed via images and fantasies.
Hillman has his own definition of soul.Tags: Sarah Belkner, Brian and Karl, Brian Fairbairn, music video, Arri Alexa, independent music, EJ Martin, Karl Eccleston and Sydney SARAH BELKNER // .
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